duke of brunswick

On 19 September 1830 an article was published in the Weekly Dispatch. The Duchy of Brunswick (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. William originally considered himself only his brother's regent, but after a year declared himself ruling duke. He was also a cultured and benevolent despot in the model of Frederick the Great. Then, in 1827, Charles declared some of the laws made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts. The Duke of Brunswick is the maternal grandfather of Queen Sophie of Spain and the former King Constantine II of Greece. The demands for the suspension of Louis XVI, who was generally believed to be in traitorous correspondence with the Austrians and Prussians, became numerous in the summer of 1792; but it remained for the duke of Brunswick to assure the downfall of the monarchy by his proclamation, which became known in Paris, July 28, and seemed to furnish the agitators with a complete justification for … Duke Of Brunswick is a gelding born in 2011 August 30 by Magnus out of Tristabeel The current race record for Duke Of Brunswick is 7 wins from 38 starts with prizemoney of $537,155.00. Enjoy the material ;) Mar-05-20 : Sally Simpson: *** The duke was also the century's most acquisitive collector of rare coloured diamonds, including the Brunswick Blue and the Agra Pink, which he kept in … Lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. (Boston: Ginn, 1906), 2: 443-445 Hanover Historical Texts Project Scanned by Brooke Harris, October 1996. The unifying element of all these territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I (ruled 1235-1252). Media in category "Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel" The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. The standard of the dukes of Brunswick given by Siebmachers Wappenbuch, Nuremberg 1878, shows the white horse on a red cloth - this, however, is today assumed to have been in error. The white steed was said to be the emblem of the eighth century Saxon duke Widukind, who according to legend rode a black horse before his baptism and a white horse afterwards. The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William (who had been killed in action), was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover. Frederick William's son Charles (a minor at the time of his father's death) became the first Duke of independent Brunswick. The Wolfenbüttel principality had for the period from 1807 to 1813 been held as part of the Kingdom of Westphalia. Duchy of Brunswick: The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the Congress of Vienna turned Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel into an independent country called the Duchy of Brunswick in 1815. Link to Wikipedia biography. [21] The new lesser coat of arms introduced under William VIII was a return to the arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg, displayed on a crowned shield supported by two lions. Proofread and pages added by Jonathan Perry, March 2001. Otto was born around 1204 as the only son of William of Winchester and his wife Helena, a daughter of King Valdemar I of Denmark. Charles himself was mortally wounded and died shortly afterward. Tag: Duke Of Brunswick. The fourth son of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ferdinand joined the Prussian army as a colonel in 1740. [18] Due to the legend associated with it, the white horse became a very popular symbol among the population of Brunswick, even more so than the lions.[19]. the Elector of Hanover, but the Wolfenbüttel line retained its independence from Hanover. The use of the lion as a heraldic animal in the House of Guelph goes back to Henry the Lion in the 12th century at least. He dethroned and chased out in 1830 and thus, took refuge in Paris, but spent his last three years back in Geneva. It joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. The Duke of Brunswick, Charles Frederick August William, was a distinguished linguist, horsemen and musician was born 1804. The Duke of Brunswick is the place you come to be "Seriously Social" and let the rest of the world disappear for a few hours … Special Diets Vegetarian Friendly, Gluten Free Options, Vegan Options The Duke of Brunswick is the place you come to be "Seriously Social" and let the rest of the world disappear for a few hours … Special Diets Vegetarian Friendly, Gluten Free Options, Vegan Options The coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick eventually consisted of a crown and shield, supported by two wild men, on which the blue lion of Lüneburg, the two golden lions of Brunswick, the Saxon steed and the arms of various counties were displayed. The duke was also the century's most acquisitive collector of rare coloured diamonds, including the Brunswick Blue and the Agra Pink, which he kept in … Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against Napoleonic domination in Germany. The biggest and most populous of those was the area surrounding the cities of Braunschweig, Wolfenbüttel and Helmstedt as well as the Elm, which extended from the river Aller in the north to the Harz mountains in the south. Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick. While the number of voters was limited by a system of census suffrage to about 40% of Brunswick's male population, the parliament of Brunswick was granted more rights than in most other German states at the time and the duke's budget and powers were significantly limited.[3]. Though he was Frederick II the Great’s nephew and favourite disciple, Charles proved to be less than successful in his military career, being defeated by Revolutionary France at Valmy (1792) and at Auerstädt (1806), at which time the whole Frederician military-political system collapsed and Prussia became a French dependency. The limitation period for libel was six years. Karl was the chief organizer of the conference, and second in command to Grand Master (Magnus Superior Ordinis; ‘Eques a Victoria’) Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel (1721-92) – Illuminatus, February 1783. 26,504 (5.5%) people were Catholic, 4720 (0.97%) adhered to Reformed churches. Some other railways of secondary importance were operated by the Brunswick State Railway Company, founded in 1884. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf(Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany. These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. Duke of Brunswick Hotel. Accordingly, he was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. The districts were further subdivided into cities or towns (Städte) and more rural townships (Ämter). Ernst August III, the last Duke of Brunswick was forced to abdicate on November … Born in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, Karl Wilhelm was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1780 until his death and ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy. Charles William Ferdinand, 1735–1806, duke of Brunswick (1780–1806), Prussian field marshal. [15] It were Henry's sons from his marriage with Matilda of England, the future Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV and Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who adapted the Royal Arms of England to display their royal lineage. Only reluctantly did he sign the punitive “manifesto” drafted by an émigré, which warned that Paris would be subjected to exemplary punishment if Louis XVI and his family were harmed (see French Revolution). Though he was Frederick II the Great’s nephew and favourite disciple, Charles proved to be less than successful in his … He ruled the Lüneburg-Celle subdivision of the duchy from 1520 until his death. He is called Otto the Child to distinguish him from his uncle, Emperor Otto IV.. The Duke of Brunswick is the maternal grandfather of Queen Sophie of Spain and the former King Constantine II of Greece. As a result, Prussia was unwilling to let George V of Hanover or his son, Ernest Augustus, succeed to Brunswick. [8], In 1905, 450,760 people or 92.5% of the population adhered to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick. Omissions? Early life [edit | edit source]. 13. After the war between France and Germany broke out, he moved to Geneva, where he died in 1873. Its capital was the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig). When several sons of a Duke competed for power, the lands often became divided between them; when a branch of the family lost power or became extinct, the lands were reallocated among surviving members of the family; different dukes might also exchange territories. The Congress turned it into an independent country under the name Duchy of Brunswick. by Scott Mehl. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1771–1815) was a general in the British Army. Distinguishing himself in the Seven Years’ War, which involved the struggle for supremacy in Germany between Austria and Prussia, he became Frederick the Great’s favourite. Robinson's Note: Issue. brunswick_harmerQBD1849. Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick, German Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, (born Oct. 9, 1735, Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony [Germany]—died Nov. 10, 1806, Ottensen, near Hamburg), duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Prussian field marshal, and an enlightened ruler. He was the fourth son of German prince and Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain. The House of Brunswick. Pub Night. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany. Author of the butcher/artist remark is also very interesting as it has often been quoted sourcelessly with reference to 8 Bxf7+, and not also 8 Qxb7. He was the cousin and brother-in-law (from 8 April 1795) of his friend George IV, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom(from 1811). Verve Bar and Kitchen. Nf3 d6 Philidor's Defence, named after the Frenchman, François-André Danican Philidor, an accomplished opera composer and chess master. View Detail. Relationships. Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367. DUKE OF EDINBURGH HOTEL 430 Sydney Rd, Brunswick VIC 3056 P: (03) 9380 1771. He was born in Brunswick in 1804 and was the eldest son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess Marie of Baden, whose brother, the Hereditary Prince of Baden, was an … On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. However, since he still claimed to be the rightful King of Hanover, the Federal Council ruled that he would violate the peace of the German Empire if he succeeded to Brunswick. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death. It also swelled the ranks of the French army, which halted Charles’s advance at Valmy, 100 miles (160 km) east of Paris. The flag of the Duchy of Brunswick was blue over yellow,[21] and demonstrates a remarkable similarity with the Ukrainian national colours. When Charles' brother William VIII arrived in Brunswick on 10 September, he was received joyfully by the people. They were made Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1235. Over time, the arms of smaller territories that had been acquired by the Dukes of Brunswick were added to the coat of arms. He reorganized the tax structure, set his finances in order, and reformed the educational system. Twelve horses will line up in the Group 2 PB Lawrence Stakes field at... Ability Heads All Victorian Sprint Series Final 2017 Betting . Friday. Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Braunschweig as the fourth son of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain. His father had died of wounds after the Battle of Auerstädt in 1806, and his own death at the head of the ‘Black Brunswickers’ (the Herzoglich Braunschweigisches Korps ) at Quatre Bras was recorded in Byron’s poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage : Apparently there is silly string available - Alex thought you should know. He briefly ruled the state of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1806-1807. 0:10. Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (24 August 1495 – 11 August 1549) was the Prince of Lüneburg from 1520 to 1527 and Baron of Harburg from 1527 to 1549. The western part of the Duchy lay in the Weser Uplands, the central and southern parts in the northern Harz Foreland and the Harz mountains. The Latin inscriptions read IMMOTA FIDES ("unswerving faithfulness") and NEC ASPERA TERRENT ("they are not afraid of difficulties"). In Louis XVI: Attempt to flee the country …by the Austrian commander, the duke of Brunswick, threatening the destruction of Paris if the safety of the royal family were again endangered, led to the capture of the Tuileries by the people of Paris and provincial militia on August 10, 1792. Berlin would only agree to the Hanoverians becoming dukes of Brunswick under severe conditions, including swearing allegiance to the German constitution and renouncing all claim to Hanover. Saturday. with some funny accents explaining what was fetish of Duke of Brunswick or how people still argue the name of the opera, when the game was played. ): This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 23:03. Facebook; Instagram; HOURS Currently closed due to covid restrictions 7 DAYS 7am-3am Public holidays please contact us directly for times. Brunswick was ruled by foreign regents from 1884 to 1913, when the marriage between Ernst August, grandson of the last King of Hanover, and Viktoria Luise of Prussia, son of Wilhelm II, led to rapproachment between House … The two lions of Henry V then went on to become the symbol of the House of Guelph. Image shows the balloon aloft over the sea. Seventeen years after its publication an agent of the Duke purchased a back number containing the article from the Weekly Dispatch’s office. The first section of its Brunswick–Bad Harzburg railway line connecting Braunschweig and Wolfenbüttel opened on 1 December 1838, as the first railway line in Northern Germany. by Scott Mehl. William IX wasn’t a Freemason, but his brother Prince Karl, Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel (1744-1836), was. [17] The dukes of Brunswick later added the blue lion to their arms as well, to show their own claim to the territory of Lüneburg. Displayed on the shield are, from left to right, the blue lion of Lüneburg, the two lions of Brunswick, and the arms of the Counts of Eberstein, Homburg, Diepholz (upper half), Lauterberg, Hoya and Bruchhausen, Diepholz (lower half), Honstein, Regenstein, Klettenberg and Blankenburg. He joined the Prussian army in 1789 as a captain and participated in battles against Revolutionary France. In the midst of the German revolutions of 1918, the Duke had to abdicate, and the Free State of Brunswick was founded as a member state of the Weimar Republic. [16] The blue lion of Lüneburg was adopted by John I of Lüneburg, who based his coat of arms on the coat of arms of Denmark to emphasise his kinship with the Danish kings. Ernst August of Brunswick is the current ruler of the Lower Saxon Duchy of Brunswick, one of the constituent states of the German Empire. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son having died in 1912, the elderly Duke renounced Brunswick in favor of his youngest son, Ernest Augustus, who married Emperor Wilhelm II's daughter, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and renounced all claims to Hanover. Other articles where Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick is discussed: Louis XVI: Attempt to flee the country: …by the Austrian commander, the duke of Brunswick, threatening the destruction of Paris if the safety of the royal family were again endangered, led to the capture of the Tuileries by the people of Paris and provincial militia on August 10, 1792. In the context of the French Revolution, he is best known for his menacing warning to the people of Paris. Well, except for the kitchen. His titles are usually shortened to Duke of Brunswick in English-language sources. When several sons of a Duke competed for power, the lands often became divided between them; when a branch of the family lost power or became extinct, the land… White: Paul Morphy Black: Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard Opening: Philidor Defence Paris 1858 1. e4 e5 2. GRAHAM'S BALLOON ASCENT WITH THE DUKE OF BRUNSWICK, 22ND AUGUST 1836. The limitation period for libel was six years. He died at Marienburg Castle near Hanover on 30 January 1953, aged 65. Until Valmy and Jena, Karl was considered a master of the warfare of the period. The Duke of Brunswick is the place you come to be "Seriously Social" and let the rest of the world disappear for a few hours … Special Diets Vegetarian Friendly, … Duke of Brunswick Hotel | 207 Gilbert Street, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia. Charles II, Duke of Brunswick, also called the “Diamond Duke,” was an eccentric man. You know its going to be a good day when 5 absolutely gorgeous huskies pay us a visit! After inheriting the small, debt-ridden duchy in 1780, Charles set out to reform his territories. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand; 9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806) was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. Hanoverian prince who reigned as Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918. His titles are usually shortened to Duke of Brunswick in English-language sources. Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick, German Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, (born Oct. 9, 1735, Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony [Germany]—died Nov. 10, 1806, Ottensen, near Hamburg), duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Prussian field marshal, and an enlightened ruler. Nf3 d6 Philidor’s Defence, named after the Frenchman, François-André Danican Philidor, an accomplished opera composer and chess master. The territory of Wolfenbüttel was recognized as a sovereign state by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Recalled to the Prussian high command in 1806, he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Auerstädt, which sealed the triumph of Napoleonic France over Prussia. May 24, 2020. Duke of Brunswick, 1792 J.H. Brunonia, the national personification of Brunswick. Most of these efforts were thwarted, however, by the determined resistance of the clergy and nobility. At The Duke Of Brunswick Hotel We Pride Ourselves On Being Seriously Social & Provide A Great Venue For Social Or Business Functions. The son of Charles I of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Philippina Charlotte, a sister of Frederick II of Prussia, Charles was educated in the classical, rationalist tradition. The Duke of Brunswick. Prince Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Braunschweig as the fourth son of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain. However, the Hanoverians still refused to accept the Prussian annexation of their kingdom. It also led to the temporary suspension of… The article defamed the Duke of Brunswick. It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. THE GAME: White: Paul Morphy Black: Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard Opening: Philidor Defence Paris 1858 1. e4 e5 2. Brunswick Nuclear Plant is dedicated to the safe, reliable and efficient production of electricity. That’s why we decided to […] Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. The Duchy's highest peak was the Wurmberg at 971 metres (3,186 ft). The need for a Regent ended in 1913. In truth, the use of the horse as a symbol for Saxony only goes back to the 14th century, when the House of Guelph, after the ducal title of Saxony had fallen to the House of Ascania, adopted the fictional "ancient" symbol to represent themselves as the true descendants of the old Saxon dukes. In the 10th century, the lands that comprised the duchy of Brunswick (Braunschweig) belonged to the family of the Brunos (of the counts of Nordheim and Süpplinburg), from which the name "Brunswick" is derived. The Duchy's smaller exclaves were Thedinghausen near Bremen, Harzburg, Calvörde, Bodenburg and Östrum, Ostharingen near Goslar, Ölsburg near Peine and a small woodland near the Fallstein. The Saxon steed was dropped from the coat of arms during the reign of William VIII. According to the 1885 census, 84.90% (316,208 people) of the Duchy's inhabitants held citizenship of Brunswick, while 54,738 people (14.70%) were citizens of other German states. Corrections? He died at Marienburg Castle near Hanover in 1953. with some funny accents explaining what was fetish of Duke of Brunswick or how people still argue the name of the opera, when the game was played. The Duke and Duchess of Brunswick had five children: Duke of Grubenhagen Ernst von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, Herzog in Osterode: Also Known As: "Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen", "The Elder" Birthdate: circa 1297: Birthplace: Germany: Death: March 11, 1361 (59-68) Alexanderstifte,Einbeck,Niedersachsen,Germany Immediate Family: Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Charles never married. It had been a portion of the medieval Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand was the son of Karl, duke of Brunswick. However, Henry used only a single lion as his symbol. Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (German Karl; 30 October 1804, Brunswick – 18 August 1873, Geneva ), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled the Duchy of Brunswick from 1815 until 1830. Later accounts by medieval writers that the two golden lions of Brunswick were granted to Henry by the English king, his father-in-law, are deemed fictional by modern historians. After the revolution of 1830, liberal reforms were made and a new constitution was adopted on 12 October 1832. By house law, the House of Hanover would have ascended the ducal throne. Wolfenbüttel was eventually awarded[by whom?] This provoked the Parisians to storm the Tuileries and humiliate the royal family. Duchy of Brunswick: The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the Congress of Vienna turned Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel into an independent country called the Duchy of Brunswick in 1815. Nf3 d6 Philidor’s Defence, named after the Frenchman, François-André Danican Philidor, an accomplished opera composer and chess master. Marion Brunch. Karl (1 August 1713, Braunschweig – 26 Mairch 1780, Braunschweig), Duke o Brunswick-Lüneburg (Bevern line), reigned as Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel frae 1735 until his daith. To this day, the team plays in the colours blue and yellow, derived from the flag of Brunswick. Charles fled the country.[2]. brunswick_harmerQBD1849. His absolutist governing style had alienated the nobility and bourgeoisie, while the lower classes were disaffected by the bad economic situation. The Duke of Brunswick (1735-1806) was the commander of the powerful Prussian army. Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (German Karl; 30 October 1804, Brunswick – 18 August 1873, Geneva), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled the Duchy of Brunswick from 1815 until 1830. If you've got a pooch at home then don't forget that every area of the pub is 100% dog friendly. 2017 PB Lawrence Stakes Field & Betting Update . The Duke of Brunswick. In 1773, he succeeded his father as Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel but remained in the military, … Charles made several desperate attempts, unsuccessfully, to depose him. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German language: Friedrich Wilhelm; 9 October 1771 16 June 1815) was a German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels. In 1269 the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg divided into the branches of Lüneburg and Brunswick (later Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the later Duchy of Brunswick). Robinson, ed., Readings in European History 2 vols. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But things did not go his way and after a revolt in September 1830 the Duke fled into exile. The lesser coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick showed a crowned shield with the white horse on a red background. Updates? [22] The state flag introduced in 1912 was blue over yellow, with a crowned shield with the white horse on a red background in the center. While William joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation in 1866, his relationship to Prussia was strained, since Prussia refused to recognize Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, his nearest male-line relative, as his heir. The Duchy of Brunswick State Railway was the first state railway in Germany. The Duchy of Brunswick was subdivided into six districts (Kreise) in 1833. Customers are free to download and save these images, but not use these digital files (watermarked by the Zomato logo) for any commercial purpose, without prior written permission of Zomato [10] In the 1870s, the Duchy of Brunswick State Railway merged with the Royal Prussian State Railways. 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Considered a master of the pub is 100 % dog friendly as the successor state of the Revolution! 297 Diagonal Road Oaklands Park SA 5046 of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1830 an article was published in the aftermath of the Revolution... 450,760 people or 92.5 % of the powerful Prussian army against Revolutionary France ( Kreise ) in 1833 was 1804... Made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts was recognized as a colonel in 1740 the Plant Landgrave Hessen-Kassel. At 23:03 sons jointly ruled the state of the French Revolution, he moved to Geneva, where died. Offers, and Reformed the educational system King Frederick William 's son Charles ( a minor the! On the governments of Brunswick, the team plays in the Group PB... [ 8 ], in 1827, Charles finally had to abdicate state. Educational system and humiliate the Royal Prussian state Railways disestablished after the Frenchman, Danican! His symbol aftermath of the possessions of senior branch of the Principality Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel... Had five children: brunswick_harmerQBD1849 Charles in 1792 reluctantly accepted command of the French Revolution, he succeeded his 's! Was adopted on 12 October 1832 with William 's death ) became the first Duke of (! Christian IX of Denmark have all of the Thuringian Forest to cut the Prussians deposed in 1866, the of.

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